Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very common lung disease that affects breathing. Among the COPD group of patients the following two major groups represented:

Chronic bronchitis COPD patient: When the bronchial tubes wholesale nfl jerseys are chronically damaged. The patient has a chronic cough (“smokers’ cough”) and coughs up phlegm and mucous for at least 3 months in a year for at least two consecutive years.

Emphysema COPD patient: When the small air sacs (alveoli) are damaged. There are often overlaps where both chronic bronchitis and emphysema are present and these patients are usually the ones with the most severe form of COPD.

Chronic asthmatic bronchitis COPD: There is a minority of cases where the patient never smoked, but had a chronic and difficult to control asthma for many years, cheap nba jerseys and this type of patient can deteriorate into an irreversible COPD.

What are the signs and symptoms of COPD?

COPD presents itself usually in a person of 50 years or older with a 20 year or longer history of having been exposed to heavy cigarette consumption (more than 20 years of at least one pack per day). Common signs and symptoms include:
• breathing difficulties (dyspnea);
• coughing up pussy gray mucous (generally in the morning);
• periods of wheezing;
• coughed up blood;
• tiredness;
• complaining of a lack of memory;
• confusion;<br Await />
• depression;
• weight loss;
• loss of appetite; and
• swelling of the connective tissues (edema).

How is COPD diagnosed?

A diagnosis of COPD involves a patient’s history and careful questioning of the symptoms. Clinically there often is a swelling of the fingers with watch glass nails or clubbing.
Other diagnostic tests include:
• spirometry testing;
• chest-rays – ordered fake ray bans to diagnose the absence or presence of signs of severe lung emphysema;
• high resolution CT scan;
• electrocardiogram;
• coughed up mucous sample (sputum); and
• blood tests.

How is COPD treated?

COPD can be treated using NFL Jerseys Cheap the following methods:

Medication:

The pharmacological treatment of COPD involves the proper administration of medication utilising the metered dose inhaler. Many COPD patients have to take corticosteroids by mouth and inhale higher doses of it as well. In patients with chronic bronchitis COPD prophylactic antibiotics may have to be taken on an ongoing basis.

Vaccinations:

Vaccination against the flu every fall season has been shown to be effective in preventing further deterioration and to prevent many premature Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses deaths from COPD.

Oxygen therapy:

Oxygen therapy on a 24-hour basis is recommended for chronic cases who are still deficient when oxygen in the blood is measured despite optimal therapy with medication.

Surgery:

For areas of severe involvement, the resection of a particularly bad affected area by a chest surgeon may be feasible. In patients with congenital lung enzyme defect a lung transplant on one lung may be prolonging life significantly. In the COPD of cystic fibrosis patients a heart and lung transplant may be needed.

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