Leprosy

What is leprosy?

Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) is a skin throwback jerseys deforming disease that is a serious health threat in many development countries because of poverty and the inability of the masses to afford effective anti-leprosy medication. The cause for leprosy is EUR the Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast bacillus similar to the one that causes tuberculosis.

It mainly affects skin nerves, skin, and mucous membranes (the moist skin inside the mouth, nose, the ano-genital area, the tip of the penis and the vagina). It can be transmitted through nasal secretions that contain leprosy bacteria.

What are the signs and symptoms of leprosy?

The signs and symptoms of leprosy vary depending on the type:

Tuberculoid wholesale nfl jersyes leprosy causes a few de-pigmented spots of skin that have altered or missing sensitivity. Patients will also experience:
• loss of sense of heat, cold and touch,
• destroyed sweat glands, hair follicles and nerve endings;
• loss of muscle power;
• loss of pain perception; and
• ulcers.

Lepromatous leprosy appears abundantly in plaques and nodules of disfigured skin. As the whole skin thickness is affected, much disfigurement is associated with this form of leprosy. Soft nodules appear on ears, the nose and cheeks. They can break down and give way to discharging sores.

Borderline leprosy (type 1 or type 2) is another form of leprosy in the middle of the two extremes of leprosy. However, this type is not stable and wants to shift into the direction of tuberculoid leprosy or lepromatous leprosy. Signs and symptoms will vary as the infection switches between forms of leprosy.

Type 1 causes flare-ups of inflammation in existing leprosy skin lesions or newly infected skin and/or nerves (neuritis). Patient’s will also experience fever and pain jordan retro 11 of the affected region.

Type 2 causes a painful condition called erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) in the first years of successful leprosy therapy. This condition eventually leads to skin ulceration and inflammation of lymph glands (lymphadenitis), arthritis, glomerulonephritis (an inflammatory kidney disease) and inflammation of testicles (orchitis).

How is leprosy diagnosed?

The regular diagnosis of leprosy is done clinically by identifying the typical skin lesions and the patches of loss of skin sensitivity (peripheral neuropathy). The physician then takes a skin biopsy from the active edge of a tuberculoid lesion. In patients with lepromatous leprosy a biopsy of one of the nodules or plaques is taken.

How is leprosy treated?

Multidrug antibiotic therapy is the method of choice for all forms of leprosy. Drug sensitivity testing in mice is recommended for all newly diagnosed patients as this way one knows whether or not the Mycobacterium leprae is resistant or not and at the same time an effective combination of drugs can be established. Long term treatment is recommended by the WHO and depends on the bacillus load when tests with skin biopsies are done.

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